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Those engine components you should know

Table of Content

The engine system and the various devices around it are classified and introduced according to their connections.


Fuel injectors

Fuel injectors must inject fuel into the cylinder at the most precise time. (A four-cylinder engine will normally have four separate injectors)

Octane rating

If a vehicle is designed for lower octane fuel and the owner uses higher octane instead, it’s a waste of money and may result in poorer complete combustion and thus lower fuel consumption performance.

The octane rating of gasoline is an indicator of its ability to resist detonation. It is about whether the fuel will simply ignite without any sparks when it is mixed with air and compressed. Such sparks can produce explosive shocks to the engine, which can be quite destructive. Typically higher performance engines will have higher compression, which requires higher octane fuel to prevent detonation.

Valve Post

The mass ratio of air to fuel. Each type of fuel has its own ratio that is most appropriate for complete combustion. Air-fuel ratio is a very important parameter for reducing emissions and improving engine performance. For our common fuels, the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio is about 14.7 for gasoline and 14.3 for diesel.

Related to oil (motor oil: mechanical lubricant).


Oil is used to lubricate moving parts, clean, prevent corrosion, improve sealing, and cool the engine by carrying heat away through flow.

The piston rings at the top of the piston protect the oil from being burned by the combustion process and keep the cylinders lubricated.

Oil galleries

Oil galleries carry oil to all parts of the engine.

Oil filter

The oil filter removes the waste carried by the oil from the engine.

Oil pan

The oil pan keeps the oil inside the engine from leaking out.

Oil pump

The oil pump pressurizes the oil properly to keep it flowing in the engine.


Related to cooling.

Whenever the engine starts working, it will generate heat, and then it needs a cooling system to help it cool down to maintain its efficiency.


Anti-freeze (coolant) is a green liquid that flows in the radiator, usually a 50:50 mix of coolant and water. It is designed to resist changes in temperature such as freezing or boiling.

Radiator and fan

The radiator is made up of a series of metal tubes and fins. When the hot coolant returns from the engine, it will pass through the tubes back to the radiator. When cold air passes through the radiator (fins inside), it cools down the coolant inside the radiator to perform the next engine cooling stroke.

Water pump

The water pump is properly pressurized to keep the coolant flowing.


The thermostat regulates the temperature of the coolant by “sending it back to the engine or to the radiator for cooling”.

The coolant channel is around the cylinder and cylinder head in the engine.

motor parts


Spark Plug

The spark plug provides the spark to ignite the fuel as we mentioned earlier. A spark plug contains a threaded metal electrode (housing) and an internal metal electrode, insulated by a porcelain material.

The spark is generated in the gap between these electrodes.


It starts the combustion process by moving the engine.


The alternator of the car is similar to the general generator in some ways. When the engine is running, it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy to help charge the battery and run other electrical systems.


Supply electricity to start the car, and other electrical systems.


Able to control the spark plug in accordance with the correct timing and sequence, maintaining a specific sequence of ignition to the cylinder.

motor parts


Exhaust Manifold

Collects gas from multiple cylinders and enters the same exhaust pipe.

Catalytic converter

The catalytic converter helps to reduce the toxic chemical gases from the engine exhaust.


The muffler reduces the noise from the engine.

The outermost end of the engine also has.

Engine belts

This belt located outside is used to drive several peripheral devices, such as the engine fan, alternator, power steering pump, water pump, air conditioning (air conditioning) compressor, etc.

What we mentioned this time are some very simple parts under the hood of the car. Nonetheless, whenever we see it we still find it complicated!

No wonder, for most people, opening the hood is like opening a door into another world.

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