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The difference between an inline engine and a V-engine?

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Automobiles usually have three different types of engine configurations.

In-line – cylinders in a row in a straight line. v-type – cylinders in two rows at an angle. Horizontal (also called horizontally opposed) – the cylinders are lined up in two rows on opposite sides of the engine.

You see inline six-cylinder engine, horizontal six-cylinder engine and V-type six-cylinder engine, if according to the same specifications (the same displacement, valve, intake and exhaust system, etc.) to build these six-cylinder engine, their performance is almost the same.

inline engine
V- engine

However, these engines have the following differences in use.

  1. engine shape is different.

(1) inline engines are long and narrow, especially in small cars, transversely mounted long and narrow engine can accommodate a very short engine cover. In air-cooled engines, inline configuration is sometimes more difficult to cool.

(2) horizontal engines are wide and flat, which gives it a low center of gravity.

(3) The V-shaped engine is formally in between, and it tends to be more cubic in shape.

The inline engine shape requires only half the camshaft of a V-type engine (if an overhead camshaft is used), which can slightly reduce the weight of the whole car.

  1. The blocks require different amounts of metal to be used, which means that the weight varies from block to block and the cost of manufacturing will vary.

The designer determines the engine configuration to be used based on different variables, including cost, available space under the hood, location requirements, available manufacturing facilities, power to weight ratio, etc.

What does it mean for a car to have dual overhead camshafts?

Typically, engines with dual overhead camshafts are high performance engines, which produce more power and are capable of running at higher speeds.

The task of the camshafts is to open the valves, allowing air into the engine and exhaust gases out of the engine. The camshaft uses rotating flanges (called cams) to push the valves open and springs on the valves to close them again, a very important task that can have a huge impact on the engine’s performance at different speeds.

The main benefit of a dual overhead camshaft is that it allows the engine to have four valves per cylinder. Each camshaft operates two valves, one camshaft controls the intake valve and the other controls the exhaust valve.

With four valves per cylinder, this gives the engine two benefits: one, with four valves per cylinder instead of two, there is more area for intake and exhaust. If more air enters the cylinders, the engine can produce more power, and if the exhaust gases exit the cylinders more easily, less power is consumed.

When the engine revs faster, the engine pumps more air into the cylinders. With four valves per cylinder, the engine can pump in enough air to keep running at higher speeds and produce useful power.

Another interesting thing car manufacturers did was to install separate intake branch pipes for each of the two intake cylinders. One is a stubby intake branch pipe for maximum airflow, and the other is a harmonic intake branch pipe.

When the intake valve of the engine is opened, air will be drawn into the engine, so the air in the intake branch pipe will flow quickly to the cylinder. If the intake valve is suddenly closed, the air will suddenly stop flowing and will build up to form a high pressure area. The high pressure wave will leave the cylinder and go up the intake branch pipe, and when it reaches the bottom of the intake branch pipe (where the branch pipe is connected to the intake manifold), it bounces back down into the intake branch pipe.

If the intake branch pipe is the right length, the pressure wave will return to the intake valve just as the intake valve opens for the next cycle. This extra pressure helps press more of the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder – just as effectively as a turbocharger.

How does the oxygen sensor in a car work?

Every new car, and most cars built after 1980, has an oxygen sensor, which is part of an emissions control system that provides data to the computer that manages the engine. The oxygen sensor is designed to help the engine run as efficiently as possible while producing the least amount of emissions possible.

The engine burns gasoline under aerobic conditions (for more details, see How a car engine works). It is a proven fact that there is a “perfect” air to gasoline mixture ratio of 14.7:1 (the perfect ratio varies by fuel – the ratio is based on the amount of hydrogen and carbon in a given fuel). If the air-to-fuel ratio is lower than the perfect ratio, then there will be fuel left over after combustion, a mixture called a dense mixture, which is not good because unburned fuel produces pollutants; if the air-to-fuel ratio is higher than the perfect ratio, then there will be an excess of oxygen, a mixture called a dilute mixture. A lean mixture tends to produce more nitrogen oxide pollutants, and in some cases, a lean mixture can cause reduced engine performance and even damage the engine.

The oxygen sensor is located in the exhaust pipe and it detects how thick or thin the mixture is. Most sensors contain chemical reactions that produce a voltage. The engine’s computer looks at the voltage to determine how thick or thin the mixture is, and adjusts the amount of fuel going into the engine accordingly.

Why does an engine need an oxygen sensor? This is because the amount of oxygen an engine can breathe depends on a variety of factors such as altitude, air temperature, engine temperature, atmospheric pressure, and engine load.

If the oxygen sensor fails, the computer will not be able to detect the air-to-fuel ratio, and it will be left to guessing, and the car’s performance will become poor and consume more fuel than it actually needs.

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